Surgery. 2015 Nov;158(5):1168-91.

Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons' operative performance

Min, Hyeyoun; Morales, Dianali Rivera; Orgill, Dennis; Smink, Douglas S.;& Yule, Steven

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An early systematic review of coaching in surgery including 4 RCTs and 19 observational studies of medical students, trainees, and practicing surgeons. Authors reported variable-quality studies that resulted in generally positive effects of coaching on participants’ perception and attitude, technical skills, and non-technical skills — primarily in simulation settings — yet little evidence on the topic of patient outcomes.