J Surg Educ. 2018 Nov;75(6):1520-1525.

Evaluating Surgical Coaching: A Mixed Methods Approach Reveals More Than Surveys Alone

Mazer, Laura M.; Hu, Yue-Yung; Arriaga, Alexander F.; Greenberg, Caprice C.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Gawande, Atul A.; Smink, Douglas S. & Yule, Steven J.

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Ten senior general surgery residents were audio/video-recorded while operating and then underwent one 1:1 video-based coaching session with an attending surgeon. Participants were surveyed, and researchers separately analyzed transcripts from the operation and from the postoperative coaching session. Observers found that residents initiated a greater proportion of teaching points and had more educational needs assessments during coaching, compared to during the operation itself.